University of Sussex
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Gender social roles: a cross-cultural comparison

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journal contribution
posted on 2023-06-10, 03:59 authored by Fauzia Naz, Richard De VisserRichard De Visser, Mamoona Mushtaq
Social role beliefs are important to study as they shape individual’s pattern of thinking about their roles as categorized gender-specific or egalitarian in society. The present study investigated cross-cultural variations in individualistic versus collectivist cultures as well as underlying dimensions of the Social Roles Questionnaire using two independent samples of students (N = 1111). From United Kingdom, 108 men (M age = 23.98, SD = 7.66) and 247 women (M age = 22.40, SD = 6.15) and from Pakistan, 552 men (M age = 23.90, SD = 3.27) and 204 women (M age = 23.96, SD = 5.43) were conveniently sampled. Cross-cultural variations and underlying dimensions of the scale were investigated by establishing measurement invariance through a series of hierarchically nested confirmatory factor analyses models by increasing levels of cross-group equality constraints. Results confirmed original two factor model i.e., gender-transcendent (a =.82) and gender-linked (a =.96) with strong Cronbach’s alphas. Measurement invariance results showed invariance on gender-transcendent (??2 = 5.68(6), p > 0.05) whereas non-invariance for measurement (??2 = 49.68(13), p < 0.01) as well as structural models (??2 = 50.19(14), p < 0.01) related to gender-linked. The results were supported by significantly lower latent mean analysis of the UK students than those of the Pakistani students on gender-linked but there was no significant difference on gender-transcendent.


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Journal of Human Behavior in the Social Environment




Routledge Taylor & Francis Group





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  • Primary Care and Public Health Publications


This is an original manuscript of an article published by Taylor & Francis in Journal of Human Behavior in the Social Environment on 4th June 2021, available at:

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