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Homegardens on Amazonian Dark Earths, Non-anthropogenic Upland and Floodplain Soils along the Brazilian Middle Madeira River Exhibit Diverging Agrobiodiversity
journal contributionposted on 2023-06-07, 16:30 authored by James A Fraser, Andre B Junqueira, Charles R Clement
We test the hypothesis that the agrobiodiversity associated with homegardens on three different soils upland Amazonian Dark Earths (ADE) and Oxisols (OX), and Fluvent Entisols (FL)commonly found along the middle Madeira River in the municipality of Manicor, Amazonas State, Brazil, is different due to the contrasting biotic, abiotic, and cultural settings specific to each of these soils. Using data from interviews with 63 farmers about food and utility species, we compare structural and floristic characteristics of homegarden agrobiodiversity. The density of individuals is higher on ADE than on the other soils (mean standard deviation: 715363 on ADE, 474283 on OX, 642399 on FL). ADE and OX have higher species richness (28.25.6 on ADE, 253.7on OX, 23.65 on FL), while ADE and FL have a greater degree of domestication (20.6 on ADE, 1.30.5 on OX, 2.30.6 on FL). ADE and OX have greater proportions of richness, density, and coverage composed of South American species, while FL has greater proportions of richness and density composed of Old World species. ADE has higher proportions of density and coverage of Mesoamerican species. Floristic composition is also different between soils: ADE occupies an intermediate position, composed of species associated with each of the other soil types and species that are most common on ADE. These differences in agrobiodiversity emerge through the interaction of human agency, plant responses, and the unique properties of soils in relation to socioeconomic and historical trajectories over time.
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