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Novel mutations expand the clinical spectrum of DYNC1H1-associated spinal muscular atrophy

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posted on 2023-06-09, 00:00 authored by Mariacristina Scoto, Alexander M Rossor, Matthew B Harms, Sebahattin Cirak, Mattia Calissano, Stephanie Robb, Adnan Y Manzur, Amaia Martínez Arroyo, Aida Rodriguez Sanz, Sahar Mansour, Penny Fallon, Irene Hadjikoumi, Andrea Klein, Michele Yang, Marianne De Visser, W C G Truus Overweg-Plandsoen, Frank Baas, J Paul Taylor, Michael Benatar, Anne M Connolly, Muhammad T Al-Lozi, John Nixon, Christian G E L de Goede, A Reghan Foley, Catherine Mcwilliam, Matthew Pitt, Caroline Sewry, Rahul Phadke, Majid HafezparastMajid Hafezparast, W K Kling Chong, Eugenio Mercuri, Robert H Baloh, Mary M Reilly, Francesco Muntoni
OBJECTIVE To expand the clinical phenotype of autosomal dominant congenital spinal muscular atrophy with lower extremity predominance (SMA-LED) due to mutations in the dynein, cytoplasmic 1, heavy chain 1 (DYNC1H1) gene. METHODS Patients with a phenotype suggestive of a motor, non-length-dependent neuronopathy predominantly affecting the lower limbs were identified at participating neuromuscular centers and referred for targeted sequencing of DYNC1H1. RESULTS We report a cohort of 30 cases of SMA-LED from 16 families, carrying mutations in the tail and motor domains of DYNC1H1, including 10 novel mutations. These patients are characterized by congenital or childhood-onset lower limb wasting and weakness frequently associated with cognitive impairment. The clinical severity is variable, ranging from generalized arthrogryposis and inability to ambulate to exclusive and mild lower limb weakness. In many individuals with cognitive impairment (9/30 had cognitive impairment) who underwent brain MRI, there was an underlying structural malformation resulting in polymicrogyric appearance. The lower limb muscle MRI shows a distinctive pattern suggestive of denervation characterized by sparing and relative hypertrophy of the adductor longus and semitendinosus muscles at the thigh level, and diffuse involvement with relative sparing of the anterior-medial muscles at the calf level. Proximal muscle histopathology did not always show classic neurogenic features. CONCLUSION Our report expands the clinical spectrum of DYNC1H1-related SMA-LED to include generalized arthrogryposis. In addition, we report that the neurogenic peripheral pathology and the CNS neuronal migration defects are often associated, reinforcing the importance of DYNC1H1 in both central and peripheral neuronal functions.


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