University of Sussex
Barkus et al NC3Rs j neurosci meth 2022.pdf (3.03 MB)

Refinements to rodent head fixation and fluid/food control for neuroscience

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journal contribution
posted on 2023-06-10, 07:06 authored by Chris Barkus, Caroline Bergmann, Tiago Branco, Matteo Carandini, Paul T Chadderton, Gregorio L Galiñanes, Gary Gilmour, Daniel Huber, John R Huxter, Adil G Khan, Andrew J King, Miguel Maravall, Tina O'Mahony, C Ian Ragan, Emma S J Robinson, Andreas T Schaefer, Simon R Schultz, Frank Sengpiel, Mark J Prescott
The use of head fixation in mice is increasingly common in research, its use having initially been restricted to the field of sensory neuroscience. Head restraint has often been combined with fluid control, rather than food restriction, to motivate behaviour, but this too is now in use for both restrained and non-restrained animals. Despite this, there is little guidance on how best to employ these techniques to optimise both scientific outcomes and animal welfare. This article summarises current practices and provides recommendations to improve animal wellbeing and data quality, based on a survey of the community, literature reviews, and the expert opinion and practical experience of an international working group convened by the UK's National Centre for the Replacement, Refinement and Reduction of Animals in Research (NC3Rs). Topics covered include head fixation surgery and post-operative care, habituation to restraint, and the use of fluid/food control to motivate performance. We also discuss some recent developments that may offer alternative ways to collect data from large numbers of behavioural trials without the need for restraint. The aim is to provide support for researchers at all levels, animal care staff, and ethics committees to refine procedures and practices in line with the refinement principle of the 3Rs.


Publication status

  • Published

File Version

  • Published version


Journal of Neuroscience Methods




Elsevier BV



Page range

a109705 1-23

Event location


Department affiliated with

  • Neuroscience Publications

Full text available

  • Yes

Peer reviewed?

  • Yes

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First Open Access (FOA) Date


First Compliant Deposit (FCD) Date