Carreck_&_Ratnieks_(2014).pdf (254.9 kB)
The dose makes the poison: have “field realistic” rates of exposure of bees to neonicotinoid insecticides been overestimated in laboratory studies?
journal contributionposted on 2023-06-08, 20:18 authored by Norman CarreckNorman Carreck, Francis Ratnieks
Recent laboratory based studies have demonstrated adverse sub-lethal effects of neonicotinoid insecticides on honey bees and bumble bees, and these studies have been influential in leading to a European Union moratorium on the use of three neonicotinoids, clothianidin, imidacloprid, and thiamethoxam on “bee attractive” crops. Yet so far, these same effects have not been observed in field studies. Here we review the three key dosage factors (concentration, duration and choice) relevant to field conditions, and conclude that these have probably been over estimated in many laboratory based studies.
- Published version
JournalJournal of Apicultural Research
PublisherInternational Bee Research Association
Department affiliated with
- Evolution, Behaviour and Environment Publications
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