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XRN 5'→3' exoribonucleases: structure, mechanisms and functions
journal contributionposted on 2023-06-15, 14:48 authored by Vinay K Nagarajan, Chris JonesChris Jones, Sarah NewburySarah Newbury, Pamela J Green
The XRN family of 5' ? 3' exoribonucleases is critical for ensuring the fidelity of cellular RNA turnover in eukaryotes. Highly conserved across species, the family is typically represented by one cytoplasmic enzyme (XRN1/PACMAN or XRN4) and one or more nuclear enzymes (XRN2/RAT1 and XRN3). Cytoplasmic and/or nuclear XRNs have proven to be essential in all organisms tested, and deficiencies can have severe developmental phenotypes, demonstrating that XRNs are indispensable in fungi, plants and animals. XRNs degrade diverse RNA substrates during general RNA decay and function in specialized processes integral to RNA metabolism, such as nonsense-mediated decay (NMD), gene silencing, rRNA maturation, and transcription termination. Here, we review current knowledge of XRNs, highlighting recent work of high impact and future potential. One example is the breakthrough in our understanding of how XRN1 processively degrades 5' monophosphorylated RNA, revealed by its crystal structure and mutational analysis. The expanding knowledge of XRN substrates and interacting partners is outlined and the functions of XRNs are interpreted at the organismal level using available mutant phenotypes. Finally, three case studies are discussed in more detail to underscore a few of the most exciting areas of research on XRN function: XRN4 involvement in small RNA-associated processes in plants, the roles of XRN1/PACMAN in Drosophila development, and the function of human XRN2 in nuclear transcriptional quality control. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: RNA Decay mechanisms.
JournalBBA - Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Department affiliated with
- Clinical and Experimental Medicine Publications
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