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EUROBATS guidelines8_light pollution.pdf (2.23 MB)

Guidelines for consideration of bats in lighting projects.

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posted on 2023-06-09, 15:33 authored by C C Voigt, C Azam, J Dekker, J Ferguson, M Fritze, S Gazaryan, F Hölker, G Jones, N Leader, D Lewanzik, H J G A Limpens, Fiona MathewsFiona Mathews, J Rydell, H Schofield, K Spoelstra, M Zagmajster
Eighty percent of the world’s population are currently exposed to light-polluted skies, and the Milky Way is no longer visible to more than a third of humanity. The pace the light pollution is increasing is faster than global population growth and economic development. While environmental conditions at night are being dramatically and rapidly altered, circadian rhythms, behaviour and ecology of plants and animals are imminently influenced. In the same time, effects of artificial lighting, various illumination schemes and spectra on biodiversity, including bats, are currently insufficiently understood, whereas only a vague notion of required mitigation and compensation activities exists among decision-makers and other parties involved in lighting projects. Although the bats are almost exclusively nocturnal and extremely sensitive to multiple effects of light pollution, its negative impact on bats alongside essential measures needed to preserve unfragmented nightscapes for these animals are often disregarded during impact assessments, planning and operation. In this volume, we tried to compile available evidence related to the effect of artificial light at night on the European bats. Based on the current state of knowledge, solutions are proposed concerning possible ways to avoid, mitigate and compensate the adverse effects which lighting projects may have on bats and their functional habitats. We also outlined research priorities for future studies, required for in-depth understanding of the problem and assessing efficiency of proposed mitigative measures.


Publication status

  • Published

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  • Published version


UN Environment, UNEP/EUROBATS Secretariat



Place of publication

Bonn, Germany

Department affiliated with

  • Evolution, Behaviour and Environment Publications


EUROBATS Publication Series No. 8 ISBN 978-92-95058-39-2 (printed version) ISBN 978-92-95058-40-8 (electronic version)


UN Environment

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