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To what extent has the ‘Barcelona Process: Union for the Mediterranean’ been economically beneficial to Jordan?

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posted on 2023-06-09, 18:57 authored by Madlen Rabadi
The Jordanian government had high expectations for its Association Agreement (AA) with the European Union (EU), hoping it would lead to increased exports to the EU, although the private sector feared competition from European industries (Abu Dalbouh, 2005, pp. 142–143). The early 1990s were politically and economically challenging to Jordan. The AA, which entered into force in 2002 following the Barcelona Process, stipulated the establishment of comprehensive partnerships and prosperity for the Euro- Mediterranean area (EEAS, 1995). This thesis attempts to answer the following question: To what extent has the ‘Barcelona Process: Union for the Mediterranean’ been economically beneficial to Jordan? It is necessary to examine EU-Jordanian trade relations both within and outside the scope of the Barcelona Process from 1995 until 2012. First, this study will set the theoretical framework for the thesis, then examine the Jordanian political economy that led to the signing of the AA. The actual negotiations that led to the AA will be analysed using components of non-cooperative negotiating theory to shed light on the division of power among the parties (Jordan and the EU). The agreement will subsequently be tested using ex-ante and ex-post-free trade agreement (FTA) assessment models to determine the most potentially advantageous outcomes versus the actual outcomes. The action plans contain the annual expectations of Jordan’s implementation of the points stipulated in the AA. To measure the tangible successes of the action plans, they have been analysed using enterprise charter indicators, as developed by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development.


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